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From Oranges and Lemons to Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate: Clinical Observations Stimulate Basic Research
Joseph A. Buckwalter, MD; John J. Callaghan, MD; Randy N. Rosier, MD, PhD
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Joseph A. Buckwalter, MD
John J. Callaghan, MD
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 01008 Pappajohn Pavilion, Iowa City, IA 52242. E-mail address for J.A. Buckwalter: joseph-buckwalter@uiowa.edu

Randy N. Rosier, MD, PhD
Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, P.O. Box 665, Rochester, NY 14642

The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.

J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2001 Aug 01;83(8):1266-1268
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Over the long history of the medical profession, physicians seeking answers to questions raised by their clinical observations have had a central role in stimulating research that has improved the prevention and treatment of disease1. In the last fifty years, the increasing cost and complexity of scientific investigation have helped to make basic biomedical research an enterprise of its own, increasingly separated from physicians who are skilled and experienced in medical practice. This change has occurred to the extent that expert clinicians who participate in basic scientific investigations have become scarce2. Some outstanding scientists currently believe that biomedical science has advanced to the point that there is little need for investing in basic research that is stimulated or guided by clinical observations or for testing the value of basic research against clinical experience. At the same time, some prominent clinicians believe that asking fundamental questions about their clinical practice accomplishes little and that they can rely on pharmaceutical, medical-implant, and technology companies to provide the information and innovations that improve patient care. Should these views go unchallenged?
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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