Instructional Course Lecture   |    
Congenital Clubfoot
R. Jay Cummings, MD; Richard S. Davidson, MD; Peter F. Armstrong, MD, FRCS(C), FAAP; Wallace B. Lehman, MD
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An Instructional Course Lecture, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
R. Jay Cummings, MD
Nemours Children’s Clinic, 807 Nira Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207

Richard S. Davidson, MD
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Wood Building, Second Floor, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4399

Peter F. Armstrong, MD, FRCS(C), FAAP
Shriners Hospitals for Children, P.O. Box 31356, Tampa, FL 33631-3356

Wallace B. Lehman, MD
Hospital for Joint Diseases, 301 East 17th Street, Room 835, New York, NY 10003-3899

The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.

Printed with permission of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. This article, as well as other lectures presented at the Academy’s Annual Meeting, will be available in March 2002 in Instructional Course Lectures, Volume 51. The complete volume can be ordered online at www.aaos.org, or by calling 800-626-6726 (8 a.m.-5 p.m., Central time).

J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2002 Feb 01;84(2):290-290
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The incidence of clubfoot varies widely with respect to race and gender and increases with the number of affected relatives, suggesting that the etiology is at least partly influenced by genetic factors1. The incidence among different races ranges from 0.39 per 1000 among the Chinese population to 1.2 per 1000 among Caucasians to 6.8 per 1000 among Polynesians2,3p. Lochmiller et al. recently reported a male-to-female ratio of 2.5:14.Siblings of affected individuals have up to a thirtyfold increase in the risk of clubfoot deformity. Clubfoot affects both siblings in 32.5% of monozygotic twins but in only 2.9% of dizygotic twins5. Lochmiller et al. reported that 24.4% of affected individuals have a family history of idiopathic talipes equinovarus4.
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