Case Reports   |    
Bilateral Septic Arthritis of the Hip: Does Etanercept Play a Role?A Case Report
Howard Amital, MD, MHA1; Suhail Aamar, MD1; Alan Rubinow, MD1
1 Rheumatology Unit, Division of Internal Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University School of Medicine, Ein-Karem, P.O. Box 12000, Jerusalem 91120. E-mail address for H. Amital: amitalh@hadassah.org.il
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The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Rheumatology Unit, Division of Internal Medicine, Hadassah-Hebrew University School of Medicine, Jerusalem, Israel

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2003 Nov 01;85(11):2205-2206
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The cytokines that modulate immune-mediated rheumatic diseases are rapidly being elucidated1,2. In rheumatoid arthritis, persistent inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) induces an appreciable reduction of disease activity. TNF-a antagonists abrogate the inflammatory reaction by several mechanisms3-5: they reduce the expression of cytokines (TNF-a, interleukin-1a, and interleukin-1ß), adhesion molecules, and chemokines (interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1) in the inflamed synovial tissue; they diminish leukocyte chemotaxis through the endothelium; and they suppress the activation and differentiation of osteoclasts that enhance bone resorption.
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