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Financing Graduate Medical Education: Sorting Out the Confusion
Aaron S. Covey, MD, MBA; Gary E Friedlaender, MD
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Aaron S. Covey, MD, MBA
Gary E. Friedlaender, MD
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale Physicians' Building, First Floor, 800 Howard Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520-8071. E-mail address for A.S. Covey: aaron.covey@yale.edu

In support of their research or preparation of this manuscript, one or more of the authors received grants or outside funding from the Internship Fund at the Yale School of Management for a paid internship at the American Academy/Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons. None of the authors received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.

J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2003 Aug 01;85(8):1594-1604
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At the Annual Meeting of the Academic Orthopaedic Society in November 2001, Kenneth M. Ludmerer, author of Time to Heal: American Medical Education from the Turn of the Century to the Era of Managed Care 1 , stressed that education is the academic health center's reason for being 2 . (An academic health center refers to one of the 125 recognized institutions in the United States that has a medical school, a faculty practice plan, and an associated hospital. The term includes closely affiliated hospitals.) These centers are currently facing fierce competition from private markets, increasing pressure to self-support their varied and costly social missions, and shrinking federal support in the form of graduate medical education funding. As these institutions are being threatened financially, it is reasonable to be concerned about the quality of education that they provide.
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