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Bone Induction by AdBMP-2/Collagen Implants
R.E. Schreiber, PhD1; K. Blease, PhD2; A. Ambrosio, PhD3; E. Amburn, BS4; B. Sosnowski, PhD4; T.K. Sampath, PhD5
1 MacroPore Biosurgery, Inc., 6740 Top Gun Street, San Diego, CA 92121. E-mail address: rschreiber@macropore.com
2 Celgene Corp., 4550 Towne Centre Court, San Diego, CA 92121. E-mail address: kblease@celgene.com
3 KCI, 8023 Vantage Drive, San Antonio, TX 78230. E-mail address: ambrosia@kci1.com
4 Selective Genetics, Inc., 11588 Sorrento Valley Road, Suite 21, San Diego, CA 92121. E-mail address for E. Amburn: eamburn@avanir.com. E-mail address for B. Sosnowski: bsosnowski@t-r-co.com
5 Genzyme Corp., 1 Mountain Road, Framingham, MA 01701. E-mail address: kuber.sampath@genzyme.com
View Disclosures and Other Information
The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research or preparation of this manuscript. One or more of the authors received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (Selective Genetics). No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Selective Genetics, San Diego, California

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2005 May 01;87(5):1059-1068. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.D.02025
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Background: Demineralized bone matrix and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 or 7 (BMP-2 or BMP-7)-containing collagenous matrix have been shown to induce new bone formation in orthotopic and heterotopic sites. We examined the ability of subcutaneous implants of collagen combined with adenoviral vector containing the BMP-2 gene (AdBMP-2) to induce bone formation in rats. We also evaluated whether targeting the AdBMP-2 vector through an alternative receptor pathway, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), would increase the vector's potency.

Methods: In a time-course study, rat subcutaneous sites were implanted with (1) AdBMP-2 in rat-bone-derived collagen or (2) rat-bone-derived collagen alone. Samples were collected three, seven, fourteen, or thirty-five days after treatment. In a dose-response study, bone induction by AdBMP-2 in collagen (AdBMP-2/collagen) or by AdBMP-2 and FGF2 Fab' anti-adenovirus knob protein antibody in collagen (FGF2-AdBMP-2/collagen) was tested at fourteen days. Viral vector doses of 1 × 109 PN (viral particle number), 3 × 109 PN, 1 × 1010 PN, 3 × 1010 PN, or 1 × 1011 PN per implant were used. Equal amounts of collagen (25 mg) were used to formulate all implants. Explanted tissues were evaluated histologically to determine bone formation, specific activity of alkaline phosphatase, and calcium content.

Results: AdBMP-2/collagen implants induced robust bone formation. New bone was formed by the fourteenth day after implantation. In contrast, little or no bone was induced by the implant containing collagen alone. FGF2-AdBMP-2/collagen implants stimulated significantly more bone formation (p < 0.05) than did AdBMP-2/collagen implants, regardless of the dose of viral particles.

Conclusions: Local delivery of AdBMP-2 in a collagen matrix rapidly induces bone formation, and targeting the virus through FGF receptors enhances the osteogenic potential of AdBMP-2.

Clinical Relevance: Local delivery of BMP genes in matrices offers an attractive therapeutic approach to bone repair. The potential of sustaining BMP production at the implant site may be desirable to provide a long-lasting osteogenic signal to delayed unions and fracture nonunions. Moreover, gene delivery within a matrix retains the vector at the site and also provides a scaffold for the influx of osteoprogenitor cells. Lower effective vector doses achieved by the FGF2-AdBMP-2 conjugate may be desirable in order to minimize the adenovirus dose and the adenovirus-elicited inflammation in patients while maximizing gene expression.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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