The discovery of bone morphogenetic proteins marks a major step forward in
the understanding of bone physiology and in the development of advanced
methods in skeletal surgery.
The cornerstones for successful growth-factor therapy in skeletal surgery
remain biomechanical stability and biological vitality of the bone providing
an adequate environment for new bone formation.
Knowledge of the biological characteristics, mechanisms of action, and
methods of delivery of growth factors will become essential for skeletal
The current clinical application of bone morphogenetic proteins is safe and
efficacious as a result of a well-regulated cascade of events leading to bone
Clinical trials have not yet determined whether different clinical
indications each require a specific bone-tissue-engineering format or if a
single pathway for stimulating bone-healing with growth factors is