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The Extruded Talus: Results of Reimplantation
Carla S. Smith, MD, PhD1; Sean E. Nork, MD2; Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD2
1 The Orthopaedic and Neurosurgical Center of the Cascades, 2200 Neff Road, Suite 200, Bend, OR 97701. E-mail address: powersmyth@aol.com
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, Box 359798, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104-2499
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Note: The authors thank Sarah Holt, Julie Agel, and Erin Owen for their assistance in preparing this manuscript.
The authors did not receive grants or outside funding in support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Nov 01;88(11):2418-2424. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.00471
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Background: There is considerable debate regarding the appropriate treatment of the extruded talus regardless of the presence of a fracture. The purpose of this study was to report the clinical results, complications, and functional outcome following reimplantation of the traumatically extruded talus.

Methods: A database of 119 patients with an open injury of the talus occurring between 1995 and 2003 at a level-I trauma center was reviewed to identify patients with a complete talar extrusion. Demographic, imaging, and treatment data were obtained from a review of the medical records. Follow-up was undertaken during clinic visits or by telephone. Preoperative and follow-up radiographs were reviewed to identify posttraumatic arthritis, osteonecrosis, or talar collapse, and the Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment was used to assess functional outcome.

Results: Twenty-seven patients were identified. A minimum follow-up of one year (average, forty-two months) was obtained for nineteen patients. Infection and the need for a secondary surgical procedure were the primary determinants of clinical outcome. Two of the nineteen patients had documented infections: one had developed at two weeks and one, after a calcaneal osteotomy at nineteen months. Twelve patients had no subsequent surgery, and seven had subsequent procedures (range, one to four procedures). No patient underwent a delayed amputation. The average Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment score at the time of follow-up was 29.8 (range, 5 to 59). With the numbers studied, no association was found between functional outcome and the following variables: ipsilateral lower-extremity injury, associated talar fracture, secondary procedures, osteonecrosis, or age.

Conclusions: While functional outcome is difficult to assess, salvage of the extruded talus appears to be a relatively safe operation, with a minimal risk of infection, which allows maximal flexibility in aftercare by preserving the most normal ankle anatomy possible.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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