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Quantitative Ultrasound Can Assess Living Human Cartilage
Koji Hattori, MD; Yoshinori Takakura, MD; Yasuhito Tanaka, MD; Takashi Habata, MD; Tsukasa Kumai, MD; Kota Uematsu, MD; Kazuya Sugimoto, MD; Ken Ikeuchi, PhD
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The authors did not receive grants or external funds in support of their research for or preparation of this manuscript. They did not receive payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, educational institution, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors are affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2006 Dec 01;88(suppl 4):201-212. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00589
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Articular cartilage forms the bearing surface of synovial joints. It provides a nearly friction-free load-bearing joint surface so that humans can make smooth movements without pain. However, this tissue may be damaged by trauma or inflammatory disease processes and may undergo progressive degeneration resulting in osteoarthritis1. Once articular cartilage is damaged, the cartilage is not restored to its normal state because of its limited capacity for repair1,2.New therapies such as mosaicplasty3 and cultured chondrocyte transplantation4 are used clinically for the treatment of cartilage defects. Moreover, numerous tissue-engineering initiatives have been undertaken to treat cartilage defects. Each treatment has its own strong and weak points, and it remains difficult to choose among them. Therefore, in vivo evaluation is essential to determine the best treatment, but the accurate assessment of articular cartilage in a clinical context has not yet been established.
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