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Enhanced Tibial Osteotomy Healing with Use of Bone Grafts Supplemented with Platelet Gel or Platelet Gel and Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
D. Dallari, MD2; L. Savarino, BSc2; C. Stagni, MD2; E. Cenni, MD2; A. Cenacchi, MD2; P.M. Fornasari, MD2; U. Albisinni, MD2; E. Rimondi, MD2; N. Baldini, MD2; A. Giunti, MD2
2 Seventh Division (D.D., C.S., N.B., and A.G.), Laboratory for Pathophysiology of Orthopaedic Implants (L.S., E.C., N.B., and A.G.), Blood Transfusion Service (A.C. and P.M.F.), and Servizio di Radiologia e Diagnostica per Immagini (U.A. and E.R.), Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy. E-mail address for L. Savarino: lucia.savarino@ior.it
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Seventh Division, Laboratory for Pathophysiology of Orthopaedic Implants, Blood Transfusion Service, and Servizio di Radiologia e Diagnostica per Immagini, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Nov 01;89(11):2413-2420. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.01026
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Abstract

Background: There is great interest in the use of bone substitutes to improve bone repair. We compared the osteogenic potential of lyophilized bone chips combined with platelet gel, or with platelet gel and bone marrow stromal cells, with that of lyophilized bone chips alone in the healing of a high tibial osteotomy.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed, and a standardized clinical model was applied. Thirty-three patients undergoing high tibial osteotomy to treat genu varum were enrolled and assigned to three groups. During the osteotomy, lyophilized bone chips with platelet gel were implanted into eleven patients (Group A), lyophilized bone chips with platelet gel and bone marrow stromal cells were implanted in twelve patients (Group B), and lyophilized bone chips without gel were placed in ten patients as controls (Group C). Six weeks after surgery, computed tomography-guided biopsies of the grafted areas were performed and the specimens were analyzed by histomorphometry. Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed at six weeks, twelve weeks, six months, and one year after surgery.

Results: Histomorphometry at six weeks showed significantly increased osteoblasts and osteoid areas in both Group A (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively) and Group B (p = 0.009 and p = 0.001) in comparison with controls, as well as increased bone apposition on the chips (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001, respectively), which was greater in Group B than in Group A (p < 0.05). Group B showed significantly higher revascularization than the controls (p = 0.004). Radiographs revealed a significantly higher rate of osseointegration in Groups A and B than in the controls at six weeks (p < 0.005 and p < 0.0001, respectively). At the final evaluation at one year, the osseointegration was still better in Groups A and B than in Group C; however, all patients had complete clinical and functional evidence of healing.

Conclusions: Adding a platelet gel or a platelet gel combined with bone marrow stromal cells to lyophilized bone chips increases the osteogenetic potential of the lyophilized bone chips and may be a useful tool in the treatment of patients with massive bone loss.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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