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Results of Metal-on-Metal Hybrid Hip Resurfacing for Crowe Type-I and II Developmental Dysplasia
Harlan C. Amstutz, MD1; John T. Antoniades, MD1; Michel J. Le Duff, MA1
1 Joint Replacement Institute, Orthopaedic Hospital, 2400 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, CA 90007. E-mail address for H.C. Amstutz: hamstutz@laoh.ucla.edu
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Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from The Los Angeles Orthopaedic Hospital Foundation and the William McGowan Charitable Fund, Inc. In addition, one or more of the authors or a member of his or her immediate family received, in any one year, payments or other benefits in excess of $10,000 or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (Wright Medical Technology). Also, a commercial entity (Wright Medical Technology) paid or directed in any one year, or agreed to pay or direct, benefits in excess of $10,000 to a research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Joint Replacement Institute at Orthopaedic Hospital, Los Angeles, California

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Feb 01;89(2):339-346. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00576
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Background: Modern hip resurfacing implants may increase stability and preserve more bone than conventional total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the mid-term results in a consecutive series of middle-aged patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip treated with hybrid resurfacing joint arthroplasty.

Methods: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing was performed in fifty-one patients (fifty-nine hips), forty-two of whom were female and nine of whom were male. The average age at the time of surgery was 43.7 years. Radiographic and clinical data were collected at six weeks, at three months, and at yearly follow-up visits. Seven hips had Crowe type-II developmental dysplasia of the hip and fifty-two had type-I.

Results: The follow-up period ranged from 4.2 to 9.5 years (average, 6.0 years). Initial stability was achieved in all but three hips. The clinical outcomes, as rated with the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) hip score, improved significantly compared with the preoperative ratings. On the average, the pain rating improved from 3.2 to 9.3 points; the score for walking, from 6.0 to 9.7 points; the score for function, from 5.7 to 9.6 points; and the score for activity, from 4.6 to 7.3 points (all p = 0.0001). The mean Short Form-12 (SF-12) mental score increased from 46.6 to 53.5 points, and the mean SF-12 physical score increased from 31.7 to 51.4 points (both p < 0.0001). The mean postoperative Harris hip score was 92.5 points. On the average, the range of flexion improved from 106° to 129.6°; the abduction-adduction arc, from 41.9° to 76.9°; and the rotation arc in extension, from 32.1° to 84.8° (all p = 0.0001). Four patients delivered a total of six healthy babies since the time of implantation of the prosthesis. Radiographic analysis showed a decrease in the mean body weight lever arm from 118.5 mm preoperatively to 103.9 mm postoperatively (p = 0.007). There were five femoral failures requiring conversion to a total hip arthroplasty. One hip showed a radiolucency around the metaphyseal femoral stem. There were no complete acetabular radiolucencies, and all sockets remained well fixed.

Conclusions: The mid-term results of metal-on-metal resurfacing in patients with Crowe type-I or II developmental dysplasia of the hip were disappointing with respect to the durability of the femoral component. However, the fixation of the porous-coated acetabular components without adjuvant fixation was excellent despite incomplete lateral acetabular coverage of the socket. More rigorous patient selection and especially meticulous bone preparation are essential to minimize femoral neck fractures and loosening after this procedure.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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