Surgical Techniques   |    
The Surgical Technique of Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation of the Talus with Use of a Periosteal GraftSurgical Technique
Mike H. Baums, MD1; Gabert Heidrich, MD1; Wolfgang Schultz, MD, PhD1; Hanno Steckel, MD1; Enrico Kahl, MD1; Hans-Michael Klinger, MD1
1 Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery (M.H.B., W.S., H.S., E.K., and H.-M.K.) and Radiology (G.H.), Georg-August University Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, D-37075 Göttingen, Germany. E-mail address for M.H. Baums: mike.baums@freenet.de
View Disclosures and Other Information
The original scientific article in which the surgical technique was presented was published in JBJS Vol. 88-A, pp. 303-8, February 2006
DISCLOSURE: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Note: The authors thank Katharina Sames, MD, for creating the anatomical line drawings in this report.
The line drawings in this article are the work of Jennifer Fairman (jfairman@fairmanstudios.com). The drawings were based on illustrations by Katharina Sames, MD.
Investigation performed at the Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery and Radiology, Georg-August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Sep 01;89(2 suppl 2):170-182. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.00169
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BACKGROUND: Despite its highly specialized nature, articular cartilage has a poor reparative capability. Treatment of symptomatic osteochondral defects of the talus has been especially difficult until now.

METHODS: We performed autologous chondrocyte transplantation in twelve patients with a focal deep cartilage lesion of the talus. There were seven female and five male patients with a mean age of 29.7 years. The mean size of the lesion was 2.3 cm2. All patients were studied prospectively. Evaluation was performed with use of the Hannover ankle rating score, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) ankle-hindfoot score, a visual analog scale for pain, and magnetic resonance imaging.

RESULTS: All patients were available for follow-up at a mean of sixty-three months. There was a significant improvement in the Hannover score, from 40.4 points preoperatively to 85.5 points at the follow-up examination, with seven excellent results, four good results, and one satisfactory result. The AOFAS mean score was 88.4 points compared with 43.5 points preoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a nearly congruent joint surface in seven patients, discrete irregularities in four, and an incongruent surface in one. The patients who had been involved in competitive sports were able to return to their full activity level.

CONCLUSIONS: The promising clinical results of this study suggest that autologous chondrocyte transplantation is an effective and safe way to treat symptomatic osteochondral defects of the talus in appropriately selected patients.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

ORIGINAL ABSTRACT CITATION: "Autologous Chondrocyte Transplantation for Treating Cartilage Defects of the Talus" (2006;88:303-8).

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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