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Bone Grafts and Bone Graft Substitutes in Orthopaedic Trauma SurgeryA Critical Analysis
William G. De LongJr., MD1; Thomas A. Einhorn, MD2; Kenneth Koval, MD3; Michael McKee, MD4; Wade Smith, MD5; Roy Sanders, MD6; Tracy Watson, MD7
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Temple University, One Greentree Centre, Suite 104, Marlton, NJ 08053. E-mail address: william.delong@tuhs.temple.edu
2 Department of Orthopaedics, Boston University Medical Center, 720 Harrison Avenue, Suite 808, Boston, MA 02118
3 Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, 1 Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, NH 03756
4 St. Michael's Hospital, 55 Queen Street East, Suite 800, Toronto, ON M5C 1R6, Canada
5 Denver Health Medical Center, 777 Bannock Street, Denver, CO 80204
6 Florida Orthopaedic Institute, 4 Columbia Drive, Suite 710, Tampa, FL 33606-3568
7 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Louis University Health Science Center, 3635 Vista Avenue, 7th Floor, St. Louis, MO 63110-0250
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Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from Stryker Biotech. In addition, one or more of the authors or a member of his or her immediate family received, in any one year, payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from commercial entities (DePuy and Osteotech [less than $10,000] and Stryker Biotech [in excess of $10,000]). Also, a commercial entity (Stryker Biotech and Osteotech) paid or directed in any one year, or agreed to pay or direct, benefits in excess of $10,000 to a research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Temple University School of Medicine, Marlton, New Jersey

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Mar 01;89(3):649-658. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00465
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Osteoinduction is a process that supports the mitogenesis of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, leading to the formation of osteoprogenitor cells that form new bone. The human skeleton has the ability to regenerate itself as part of the repair process. Recombinant bone morphogenetic protein has osteoinductive properties, the effectiveness of which is supported by Level-I evidence from current literature sources. Osteoconduction is a property of a matrix that supports the attachment of bone-forming cells for subsequent bone formation.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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