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Repair Integrity and Functional Outcome After Arthroscopic Double-Row Rotator Cuff RepairA Prospective Outcome Study
Hiroyuki Sugaya, MD1; Kazuhiko Maeda, MD1; Keisuke Matsuki, MD1; Joji Moriishi, MD1
1 Funabashi Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Center, 1-833 Hazama, Funabashi, Chiba 2740822, Japan. E-mail address for H. Sugaya: hsugaya@nifty.com
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at Funabashi Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Center, Funabashi, Chiba, and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kawatetsu Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 May 01;89(5):953-960. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00512
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Background: The retear rate following rotator cuff repair is variable. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that double-row tendon-to-bone fixation excels in initial fixation strength and footprint coverage compared with the single-row or transosseous fixation methods. This study was designed to report the repair integrity and clinical outcome following arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair.

Methods: A consecutive series of 106 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears underwent arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair with use of suture anchors and were followed prospectively. Twenty patients lacked complete follow-up data or were lost to follow-up. The eighty-six study subjects included fifty-two men and thirty-four women, with an average age of 60.5 years. There were twenty-six small, thirty medium, twenty-two large, and eight massive tears. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at an average of thirty-one months. Repair integrity was estimated with use of magnetic resonance imaging, which was performed, on the average, fourteen months postoperatively, and was classified into five categories, with type I indicating sufficient thickness with homogeneously low intensity; type II, sufficient thickness with partial high intensity; type III, insufficient thickness without discontinuity; type IV, the presence of a minor discontinuity; and type V, the presence of a major discontinuity.

Results: The average clinical outcome scores all improved significantly at the time of the final follow-up (p < 0.01). At a mean of fourteen months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that thirty-seven shoulders had a type-I repair; twenty-one, a type-II repair; thirteen, a type-III repair; eight, a type-IV repair; and seven, a type-V repair. The overall rate of retears (types IV and V) was 17%. The retear rate was 5% for small-to-medium tears, while it was 40% for large and massive tears. The shoulders with a type-V repair demonstrated significantly inferior functional outcome in terms of overall scores and strength compared with the other types of repairs (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: Arthroscopic double-row repair can result in improved repair integrity compared with open or miniopen repair methods. However, the retear rate for shoulders with large and massive tears remains higher than that for smaller tears, and shoulders with large repair defects (type V) demonstrate significantly inferior functional outcomes.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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