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Two-Stage Reimplantation for Periprosthetic Knee Infection Involving Resistant Organisms
Yogesh Mittal, MD1; Thomas K. Fehring, MD2; Arlen Hanssen, MD3; Camelia Marculescu, MD3; Susan M. Odum, MEd2; Douglas Osmon, MD3
1 816 West Juneau, Broken Arrow, OK 74012
2 OrthoCarolina Hip and Knee Center, 1915 Randolph Road, Charlotte, NC 28270. E-mail address for T.K. Fehring: Thomas.Fehring@orthocarolina.com
3 Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905
View Disclosures and Other Information
Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants of less than $10,000 from DePuy, a Johnson and Johnson company. In addition, one or more of the authors or a member of his or her immediate family received, in any one year, payments or other benefits in excess of $10,000 or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (consulting fees from DePuy and Stryker). No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the OrthoCarolina Hip and Knee Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, and the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Jun 01;89(6):1227-1231. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.E.01192
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Abstract

Background: Two-stage reimplantation is the most accepted mode of treatment for patients with a periprosthetic infection following total knee arthroplasty. Most studies, however, do not stratify their results on the basis of the type of infecting organism. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes for patients who had two-stage reimplantation for the treatment of infection with a resistant organism, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, at the site of a total knee replacement.

Methods: A multicenter study was performed to review the cases of all patients treated between 1987 and 2003 because of an infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis organisms at the site of a total knee replacement. The prevalence of reinfection following two-stage reimplantation was determined. Variables that may influence the outcome, such as the duration and type of intravenous antibiotics administered, previous surgery, and comorbidities of the host, were analyzed.

Results: We identified thirty-seven patients who had an infection with a resistant organism. All patients had negative cultures at the time of reimplantation. Four of the thirty-seven patients had a reinfection with the same organism, while five had a reinfection with a different organism. None of the variables noted above were found to be significantly associated with reinfection, on the basis of the numbers available.

Conclusions: Reports in the literature have discouraged reimplantation for the treatment of an infection with a resistant organism at the site of a total knee replacement. While 24% of the patients in this series had a reinfection, 14% had a reinfection with a different organism. We believe that two-stage reimplantation remains a viable treatment option for patients who have an infection with a resistant organism at the site of a total knee replacement.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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