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Correlation of Body Mass Index and Radiographic Deformities in Children with Blount Disease
Sanjeev Sabharwal, MD1; Caixia Zhao, MD1; Emily McClemens, PA-C1
1 Department of Orthopedics, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Doctor's Office Center, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 7300, Newark, NJ 07103. E-mail address for S. Sabharwal: sabharsa@umdnj.edu
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Note: The authors acknowledge the assistance of Dr. James Lee Jr. in the planning phase of the study.
Investigation performed at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Jun 01;89(6):1275-1283. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.01135
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Abstract

Background: Children with Blount disease tend to be heavier than their peers; however, the relationship between the magnitude of obesity and the severity of limb deformities in Blount disease has not been well studied.

Methods: A retrospective review of the preoperative medical records and radiographs of patients with previously untreated Blount disease was conducted. Demographic information including gender, ethnicity, the age when deformity was first noted, the age at the examination, and the body mass index was recorded. Frontal and sagittal plane deformities were analyzed by one examiner using full-length standing radiographs. The association of body mass index with various demographic and deformity parameters was then analyzed.

Results: Over an eight-year period, forty-five patients with sixty-five limbs affected by Blount disease were identified. Seventeen children (twenty-seven limbs) had early-onset Blount disease, and twenty-eight children (thirty-eight limbs) had late-onset disease. Fifteen of the children with early-onset disease and twenty-six of those with late-onset disease were overweight. There was no significant relationship between body mass index and gender, ethnicity, or laterality. The children with early-onset disease tended to have a lower body mass index but a greater magnitude of radiographic deformities compared with the children with late-onset disease. Greater varus malalignment (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) and tibial procurvatum (r = -0.79, p = 0.002) were noted with an increasing body mass index in the early-onset, but not the late-onset, group of patients. Irrespective of the age at onset, the correlation of body mass index with frontal and sagittal plane deformities was stronger in extremely obese children (body mass index of =40).

Conclusions: There is a significant relationship between the magnitude of obesity and biplanar radiographic deformities in children with the early-onset form of Blount disease and in those with a body mass index of =40. These clinical findings are consistent with the literature concerning the effect of compressive forces on growth at the proximal tibial physis.

Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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