Selected Instructional Course Lecture   |    
Degenerative Cervical Spondylosis: Clinical Syndromes, Pathogenesis, and Management
Raj D. Rao, MD1; Bradford L. Currier, MD2; Todd J. Albert, MD3; Christopher M. Bono, MD4; Satyajit V. Marawar, MD1; Kornelis A. Poelstra, MD, PhD5; Jason C. Eck, DO, MS6
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226
2 Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street S.W., Rochester, MN 55905
3 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 925 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107
4 Department of Orthopaedics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115
5 University of Maryland-Shock Trauma, 22 South Green Street, Suite 11B, Baltimore, MD 21201
6 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Memorial Hospital, 325 Belmont Street, P.O. Box 15118, York, PA 17405
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. One or more of the authors, or a member of his or her immediate family, received, in any one year, payments or other benefits in excess of $10,000 or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (DePuy Spine). No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Printed with permission of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. This article, as well as other lectures presented at the Academy's Annual Meeting, will be available in March 2008 in Instructional Course Lectures, Volume 57. The complete volume can be ordered online at www.aaos.org, or by calling 800-626-6726 (8 a.m.-5 p.m., Central time).
An Instructional Course Lecture, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Jun 01;89(6):1360-1378
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Spondylosis refers to age-related degenerative changes within the spinal column. Radiographic evidence of cervical spondylosis is frequent in asymptomatic adults1,2. Approximately 25% of individuals younger than forty years of age, 50% of individuals over forty years of age, and 85% of individuals over sixty years of age have some degree of disc degeneration2,3. Occupations that place increased loads on the head predispose individuals to the development of cervical spondylosis. Activities such as rugby, soccer, and horseback riding and occupations such as flying fighter jets may also predispose individuals to the development of cervical spondylosis4-8.
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