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Orthopaedic Surgeons as EducatorsApplying the Principles of Adult Education to Teaching Orthopaedic Residents
Stephen J. Pinney, MD, MEd, FRCS(C)1; Samir Mehta, MD2; Daniel D. Pratt, PhD3; John F. Sarwark, MD4; Edmund Campion, MD5; Laurel Blakemore, MD6; Kevin P. Black, MD7
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California-San Francisco, 1701 Divisadero Street, Suite 280, San Francisco, CA 94115. E-mail address: pinneys@orthosurg.ucsf.edu
2 Department of Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, 325 9th Avenue, Box 359798, Seattle, WA 98104. E-mail address: samir.mehta@uphs.upenn.edu
3 Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z2, Canada. E-mail address: dan.pratt@ubc.ca
4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Memorial Hospital, 2300 Children's Plaza, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60614. E-mail address: J-sarwark@northwestern.edu
5 Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina, CB #7055, Bioinformatics Building, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7055. E-mail address: ecampion@med.unc.edu
6 Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Children's National Medical Center, 111 Michigan Avenue, N.W., West 1.5, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20010. E-mail address: LBlakemore@cnmc.org
7 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, M.C. H089, Hershey, PA 17033-0850. E-mail address: kblack@psu.edu
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Jun 01;89(6):1385-1392. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.01487
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Teaching residents the knowledge, skills, and ethical values of orthopaedic surgery is critical to our profession. Currently, the standards for orthopaedic residency training are set by the Orthopaedic Residency Review Committee (RRC) of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery. However, the means by which those standards are to be achieved is largely left up to individual residency programs. This article considers how we might improve the quality and effectiveness of orthopaedic education if we apply to residency programs the core principles of adult education. These core principles form the central theme of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Course for Orthopaedic Educators, the first course among all medical specialties to be devoted entirely to education and the longest-running continuing medical education course offered by the AAOS. This article reviews the critical elements involved in educating orthopaedic residents, applying the core educational principles established by the Course for Orthopaedic Educators. We suggest that if orthopaedic educators understand the educational process and the principles that underlie it, they will be able to improve the quality and effectiveness of residency education and thus ultimately improve the profession. This article presents eight core principles of adult education and outlines how they can be applied by orthopaedic educators—both by program planners and by physician-teachers.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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