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Syndromic and Neuromuscular Scoliosis   |    
Spine Deformity in Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Daniel J. Sucato, MD, MS
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Disclosure: The author did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of his research for or preparation of this work. Neither he nor a member of his immediate family received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the author, or a member of his immediate family, is affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Feb 01;89(suppl 1):148-154. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.F.00293
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Spinal muscular atrophy was first reported by Guido Werdnig in 1891, when he described "Two hereditary cases of progressive muscular atrophy appearing as dystrophy, but on a neurotic basis."1 A year later, Professor Johann Hoffmann of the University of Heidelberg used the term "spinale muskelatrophie."2 These initial descriptions were the first to correlate the clinical findings of these patients with the histological analysis that demonstrated a lack of anterior horn cells with the normal number of motor neurons. Although classification systems such as the one described by Byers and Banker3 have been developed to aid physicians in making a prognosis for these patients, spinal muscular atrophy is an extremely heterogeneous condition in which clinical manifestations as well as life span vary widely. The classification system of Byers and Banker is the one that is most often used; however, neurologists have used a slightly different nomenclature that is based primarily on the age of the patient at the time of onset of symptoms.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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