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The Current State of Cervical and Lumbar Spinal Disc Arthroplasty
R. Douglas Orr, MD; Paul D. Postak, BSc; Mircea Rosca, BSME; A. Seth Greenwald, DPhil(Oxon)
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. One or more of the authors are employed by Orthopaedic Research Laboratories, which has performed research for Cervitech. Neither the authors nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from Cervitech or any other commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2007 Oct 01;89(suppl 3):70-75. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.00396
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Extract

The growth of spinal implant and orthobiologic technologies over the last several years has been increasing in tempo1 (Fig. 1) and is fast approaching the size of total hip and knee arthroplasty in annual dollar sales in the United States. During this time, a number of start-up and established medical device manufacturers have focused increasing resources on solutions for spinal problems. The role of the orthopaedic and neurosurgeon in these enterprises as inventor, owner, and user has contributed to this march of progress. This paper describes a small (<1%) but increasingly visible aspect of these advancing technologies, that is, artificial disc replacement.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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