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Effect of Preoperative Combined Treatment with Alendronate and Calcitriol on Fixation of Hydroxyapatite-Coated Implants in Ovariectomized Rats
Yoshinari Nakamura, MD, PhD1; Kazuo Hayashi, MD2; Samah Abu-Ali, DDS, PhD2; Masatoshi Naito, MD, PhD1; Abbas Fotovati, DVM, PhD2
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, 7-45-1, Nanakuma, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan
2 Rheumatology and Arthritis Center, Fukuoka Wajiro Hospital, 2-2-75, Wajirooka, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 811-0213, Japan. E-mail address for A. Fotovati: samdent@kyudai.jp
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, and the Rheumatology and Arthritis Center, Fukuoka Wajiro Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008 Apr 01;90(4):824-832. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.00635
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Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a potential risk factor affecting implant stability following total joint arthroplasty. Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoblastic bone resorption, and vitamin D is an important hormone involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism. We investigated the benefit of preoperative treatment with alendronate, vitamin D (calcitriol), or a combination of these substances on fixation of hydroxyapatite-coated implants in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.

Methods: Of sixty-four female rats in the study, fifty-six underwent ovariectomy and eight, a sham operation. A hydroxyapatite-coated femoral implant and an uncoated implant were implanted in all rats seven months after the ovariectomy or the sham operation. Of the fifty-six rats that underwent ovariectomy, eight served as the control group. The remaining forty-eight were treated with alendronate, calcitriol, or a combination of these agents either starting eight weeks before implantation of the rod or starting immediately after implantation. The treatment was continued until four weeks after the implantation. Four weeks after the implantation, the total and cancellous bone mineral density at the proximal part of the tibia and the shear strength of the bone-implant interface were measured in all rats.

Results: Although total bone mineral density increased in all of the alendronate-treated groups, compared with that in the ovariectomized control group, cancellous bone mineral density increased only in the group pretreated with both alendronate and calcitriol. The implant stability in the ovariectomized control rats was significantly decreased compared with that in the sham-operation rats. While treatment with alendronate only or calcitriol only did not improve the stability of the implants, treatment with a combination of alendronate and calcitriol, starting preoperatively, significantly improved the stability of the hydroxyapatite-coated implants.

Conclusions: Treatment with a combination of alendronate and calcitriol, starting preoperatively, can improve cancellous bone mineral density and the stability of hydroxyapatite-coated implants in an osteoporotic rat.

Clinical Relevance: Patients who receive alendronate and vitamin D for the treatment of osteoporosis before cementless joint arthroplasty may have more stable fixation of the implants.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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