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The Orthopaedic Forum   |    
AOA SymposiumBarriers (Threats) to Clinical Research*
J.L. Marsh, MD1; William McMaster, MD2; Javad Parvizi, MD3; Stephen I. Katz, MD, PhD4; Kurt Spindler, MD5
1 Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242. E-mail address: j-marsh@uiowa.edu
2 1310 West Stewart Drive #508, Orange, CA 92868. E-mail address: wcmmd@aol.com
3 Rothman Institute, 925 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107. E-mail address: Parvj@aol.com
4 National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 4C32, Bethesda, MD 20892. E-mail address: katzs@od.niams.nih.gov
5 Vanderbilt Sports Medicine, Medical Center East, South Tower, Suite 3200, Nashville, TN 37232-8828. E-mail address: kurt.spindler@vanderbilt.edu
View Disclosures and Other Information
This report is based on a symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Orthopaedic Association on June 16, 2007, in Asheville, North Carolina.
Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from Stryker and Smith and Nephew as a consultant. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. Commercial entities (Stryker and Smith and Nephew as a consultant) paid or directed in any one year, or agreed to pay or direct, benefits in excess of $10,000 to a research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which one or more of the authors, or a member of his or her immediate family, is affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008 Aug 01;90(8):1769-1776. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.01422
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Clinical research encompasses a wide range of scientific investigations including case reports on a single patient, case series, retrospective studies, prospective studies, and multicenter randomized clinical trials. These activities aim to enhance our understanding of medical conditions with the intention of helping patients.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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