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Symposium Articles   |    
Tissue Engineering of Bone: Material and Matrix Considerations
Yusuf Khan, PhD; Michael J. Yaszemski, MD, PhD; Antonios G. Mikos, PhD; Cato T. Laurencin, MD, PhD
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2008 Feb 01;90(Supplement 1):36-42. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.G.01260
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Abstract

When the normal physiologic reaction to fracture does not occur, such as in fracture nonunions or large-scale traumatic bone injury, surgical intervention is warranted. Autografts and allografts represent current strategies for surgical intervention and subsequent bone repair, but each possesses limitations, such as donor-site morbidity with the use of autograft and the risk of disease transmission with the use of allograft. Synthetic bone-graft substitutes, developed in an effort to overcome the inherent limitations of autograft and allograft, represent an alternative strategy. These synthetic graft substitutes, or matrices, are formed from a variety of materials, including natural and synthetic polymers, ceramics, and composites, that are designed to mimic the three-dimensional characteristics of autograft tissue while maintaining viable cell populations. Matrices also act as delivery vehicles for factors, antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents, depending on the nature of the injury to be repaired. This intersection of matrices, cells, and therapeutic molecules has collectively been termed tissue engineering. Depending on the specific application of the matrix, certain materials may be more or less well suited to the final structure; these include polymers, ceramics, and composites of the two. Each category is represented by matrices that can form either solid preformed structures or injectable forms that harden in situ. This article discusses the myriad design considerations that are relevant to successful bone repair with tissue-engineered matrices and provides an overview of several manufacturing techniques that allow for the actualization of critical design parameters.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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