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Scientific Articles   |    
Radiographic Identification of the Primary Medial Knee Structures
Coen A. Wijdicks, MSc1; Chad J. Griffith, BS1; Robert F. LaPrade, MD, PhD1; Steinar Johansen, MD2; Adam Sunderland, MSc1; Elizabeth A. Arendt, MD1; Lars Engebretsen, MD, PhD2
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, 2450 Riverside Avenue South, R200, Minneapolis, MN 55454. E-mail address for R.F. LaPrade: lapra001@umn.edu
2 Orthopaedic Center, Ulleval University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, 0407 Oslo, Norway
View Disclosures and Other Information
Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from the Research Council of Norway, grant #175047/D15, and Health East Norway, grant #10703604. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Orthopaedic Center, Ulleval University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2009 Mar 01;91(3):521-529. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.00909
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Abstract

Background: Radiographic landmarks for medial knee attachment sites during anatomic repairs or reconstructions are unknown. If identified, they could assist in the preoperative evaluation of structure location and allow for postoperative assessment of reconstruction tunnel placement.

Methods: Radiopaque markers were implanted into the femoral and tibial attachments of the superficial medial collateral ligament and the femoral attachments of the posterior oblique and medial patellofemoral ligaments of eleven fresh-frozen, nonpaired cadaveric knee specimens. Both anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were made. Structures were assessed within quadrants formed by the intersection of reference lines projected on the lateral radiographs. Quantitative measurements were performed by three independent examiners. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were determined with use of intraclass correlation coefficients.

Results: The overall intraclass correlation coefficients for intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver reliability were 0.996 and 0.994, respectively. On the anteroposterior radiographs, the attachment sites of the superficial medial collateral ligament, posterior oblique ligament, and medial patellofemoral ligament were 30.5 ± 2.4 mm, 34.8 ± 2.7 mm, and 42.3 ± 2.1 mm from the femoral joint line, respectively. On the lateral femoral radiographs, the attachment of the superficial medial collateral ligament was 6.0 ± 0.8 mm from the medial epicondyle and was located in the anterodistal quadrant. The attachment of the posterior oblique ligament was 7.7 ± 1.9 mm from the gastrocnemius tubercle and was located in the posterodistal quadrant. The attachment of the medial patellofemoral ligament was 8.9 ± 2.0 mm from the adductor tubercle and was located in the anteroproximal quadrant. On the lateral tibial radiographs, the proximal and distal tibial attachments of the superficial medial collateral ligament were 15.9 ± 5.2 and 66.1 ± 3.6 mm distal to the tibial inclination, respectively.

Conclusions: The attachment locations of the main medial knee structures can be qualitatively and quantitatively correlated to osseous landmarks and projected radiographic lines, with close agreement among examiners.

Clinical Relevance: The present study identifies medial knee structure attachment sites with use of radiographic landmarks and thus allows for reliable preoperative and postoperative assessments of surgical repairs and reconstructions of the main medial knee structures.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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