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Current Concepts Review   |    
Shoulder Injuries in the Throwing Athlete
Sepp Braun, MD1; Dirk Kokmeyer, PT, SCS, COMT2; Peter J. Millett, MD, MSc1
1 Steadman Hawkins Research Foundation, 181 West Meadow Drive, Suite 1000, Vail, CO 81657. E-mail address for P.J. Millett: drmillett@steadman-hawkins.com
2 Howard Head Sports Medicine Center, 181 West Meadow Drive, Vail, CO 81657
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2009 Apr 01;91(4):966-978. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.01341
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Abstract

Pathologic conditions in the shoulder of a throwing athlete frequently represent a breakdown of multiple elements of the shoulder restraint system, both static and dynamic, and also a breakdown in the kinetic chain.

Physical therapy and rehabilitation should be, with only a few exceptions, the primary treatment for throwing athletes before operative treatment is considered.

Articular-sided partial rotator cuff tears and superior labral tears are common in throwing athletes. Operative treatment can be successful when nonoperative measures have failed.

Throwing athletes who have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit have a good response, in most cases, to stretching of the posteroinferior aspect of the capsule.

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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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