Pathologic conditions in the shoulder of a throwing athlete frequently represent a breakdown of multiple elements of the shoulder restraint system, both static and dynamic, and also a breakdown in the kinetic chain.
Physical therapy and rehabilitation should be, with only a few exceptions, the primary treatment for throwing athletes before operative treatment is considered.
Articular-sided partial rotator cuff tears and superior labral tears are common in throwing athletes. Operative treatment can be successful when nonoperative measures have failed.
Throwing athletes who have a glenohumeral internal rotation deficit have a good response, in most cases, to stretching of the posteroinferior aspect of the capsule.