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Scientific Articles   |    
Clinical and Radiographic Analysis of an Optimized rhBMP-2 Formulation as an Autograft Replacement in Posterolateral Lumbar Spine Arthrodesis
John R. DimarII, MD1; Steven D. Glassman, MD1; J. Kenneth Burkus, MD2; Philip W. Pryor, MD3; James W. Hardacker, MD3; Leah Y. Carreon, MD, MSc1
1 Leatherman Spine Center, 210 East Gray Street, Suite 900, Louisville, KY 40202. E-mail address for J.R. Dimar II: lcarreon@spinemds.com
2 The Hughston Clinic, P.C., 6262 Veterans Parkway, Columbus, GA 31909
3 The Spine Institute, 13431 Old Meridian Street, Suite 200, Carmel, IN 46032
View Disclosures and Other Information
Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants in excess of $10,000 from Medtronic Sofamor Danek. In addition, one or more of the authors or a member of his or her immediate family received, in any one year, payments or other benefits in excess of $10,000 or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity (Medtronic). Also, a commercial entity (Medtronic) paid or directed in any one year, or agreed to pay or direct, benefits in excess of $10,000 to a research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or other charitable or nonprofit organization with which one or more of the authors, or a member of his or her immediate family, is affiliated or associated.
Investigation performed at the Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, Kentucky; the Hughston Clinic, Columbus, Georgia; and The Spine Institute, Carmel, Indiana

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2009 Jun 01;91(6):1377-1386. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.H.00200
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Abstract

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein to achieve a solid fusion in anterior lumbar interbody arthrodesis. The purpose of this study was to compare iliac crest bone graft and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2, combined with a carrier consisting of bovine collagen and ß-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite to create a compression-resistant matrix, for instrumented single-level posterolateral arthrodesis.

Methods: Four hundred and sixty-three patients with symptomatic single-level lumbosacral degenerative disease with no greater than grade-1 spondylolisthesis were treated with single-level instrumented posterolateral arthrodesis through an open midline approach. Patients were randomly assigned to either the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 matrix group (239 patients) or the autogenous iliac crest bone-graft group (224 patients). The Oswestry Disability Index, Short Form-36, and back and leg pain scores were determined preoperatively and at 1.5, three, six, twelve, and twenty-four months postoperatively. Radiographs and computed tomography scans were made at six, twelve, and twenty-four months postoperatively to evaluate for fusion.

Results: The mean operative time and mean blood loss in the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 matrix group (2.5 hours and 343.1 mL, respectively) were significantly less than those in the iliac crest bone-graft group (2.9 hours and 448.6 mL). Both groups showed similar improvements in clinical outcomes and reduced pain. At twenty-four months, 60% of the iliac crest bone-graft group reported donor-site pain. At twenty-four months, fusion was evident in 96% of the patients in the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 matrix group compared with 89% in the iliac crest bone-graft group (p = 0.014). There was a significant difference (p = 0.011) in the rate of failures because of nonunion (eighteen patients with an iliac crest bone graft compared with six patients with the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 matrix). Also, the number of patients requiring second surgeries was significantly higher in the iliac crest bone-graft group (thirty-six patients) compared with the recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 matrix group (twenty patients) (p = 0.015).

Conclusions: The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in instrumented posterolateral lumbar arthrodesis decreases operative time and blood loss and produces earlier and higher fusion rates than does iliac crest bone graft. Clinical outcomes are similar to those with iliac crest bone graft. Thus, the need for harvesting iliac crest bone is eliminated along with the morbidities associated with the harvest procedure.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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