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Classification of Upper-Limb Malformations   |    
Classification and Developmental Biology of Congenital Anomalies of the Hand and Upper Extremity
Paul R. Manske, MD1; Kerby C. Oberg, MD, PhD2
1 Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8233, 660 South Euclid Avenue, St. Louis, MO 63110. E-mail address: manskep@wudosis.wustl.edu
2 Divisions of Pediatric Pathology and Human Anatomy, Department of Surgery, Loma Linda University, 24785 Stewart Street, Room B09c, Loma Linda, CA 92350
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2009 Jul 01;91(Supplement 4):3-18. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00008
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Extract

Congenital anomalies of the hand and upper extremity are classified according to appearance; thus, the myriad of disparate presentations are organized into groups that share common morphologic features. The primary purpose of a classification is to enhance communication about the specific features of a condition by providing a descriptive framework for clinicians. Therefore, classification schemes should reflect the full spectrum of morphologic abnormalities within a given condition, and should be uncomplicated and easy for clinicians to remember and use. While an ideal classification would also guide treatment, provide insight into prognosis, and incorporate the etiologic mechanism of the condition, congenital classification systems often fall short of these goals.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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