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Scientific Articles   |    
Early Death Following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty
Michael C. Parry, BSc(Hons), MBChB, MRCS1; Alison J. Smith, BSc(Hons), MSc1; Ashley W. Blom, MD, PhD, FRCS1
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Bristol, Bristol Implant Research Centre, Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 5NB, United Kingdom. E-mail address for M.C. Parry: mdmcp@bristol.ac.uk
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Bristol, Bristol Implant Research Centre, Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol, United Kingdom



Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2011 May 18;93(10):948-953. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.00425
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Abstract

Background: 

Total knee arthroplasty carries major risks, including death. Conventional studies have compared the mortality rate following total knee arthroplasty with standardized mortality ratios or age and sex-matched populations. The purpose of the present study was to compare the mortality rate in a population of patients who were managed with total knee arthroplasty with that in patients who were awaiting surgery.

Methods: 

All patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2007 at a single institution were recorded. In the same period, all patients who were added to the waiting list for total knee arthroplasty were recorded. The mortality rate and time to death were calculated, and death certificates were retrieved for those who died within thirty or ninety days after the index event.

Results: 

Two thousand, six hundred and ninety-five patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty were used for the thirty-day mortality calculation, and 2527 were used for the ninety-day mortality calculation. These patients were compared with 5857 and 5689 patients who were added to the waiting list for the thirty-day and ninety-day mortality calculations, respectively. There was no difference between the populations in terms of age or sex (p > 0.05). The thirty-day mortality following surgery was significantly greater for the surgery group (0.371%; 95% confidence interval, 0.202% to 0.682%) than for the waiting list group (0.0683%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0266% to 0.1755%) (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.81 to 16.43). The ninety-day mortality was also significantly greater for the surgery group (0.792%; 95% confidence interval, 0.513% to 1.219%) than for the waiting list group (0.387%; 95% confidence interval, 0.256% to 0.585%) (odds ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 3.74).

Conclusions: 

Primary total knee arthroplasty is associated with an increased risk of death at thirty and ninety days after the operation when compared with a population awaiting the same procedure. Increasing age was a risk factor for death following total knee arthroplasty.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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