In treating patients with brachial plexus injury, there are no comparative data on the outcomes of nerve grafts or nerve transfers for isolated upper trunk or C5-C6-C7 root injuries. The purpose of our study was to compare, with systematic review, the outcomes for modern intraplexal nerve transfers for shoulder and elbow function with autogenous nerve grafting for upper brachial plexus traumatic injuries.Methods:
PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies in which patients had surgery for traumatic upper brachial plexus palsy within one year of injury and with a minimum follow-up of twelve months. Strength and shoulder and elbow motion were assessed as outcome measures. The Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare outcomes, with an alpha level of 0.05.Results:
Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred and forty-seven (83%) and 286 (96%) of 299 patients with nerve transfers achieved elbow flexion strength of grade M4 or greater and M3 or greater, respectively, compared with thirty-two (56%) and forty-seven (82%) of fifty-seven patients with nerve grafts (p < 0.05). Forty (74%) of fifty-four patients with dual nerve transfers for shoulder function had shoulder abduction strength of grade M4 or greater compared with twenty (35%) of fifty-seven patients with nerve transfer to a single nerve and thirteen (46%) of twenty-eight patients with nerve grafts (p < 0.05). The average shoulder abduction and external rotation was 122° (range, 45° to 170°) and 108° (range, 60° to 140°) after dual nerve transfers and 50° (range, 0° to 100°) and 45° (range, 0° to 140°) in patients with nerve transfers to a single nerve.Conclusions:
In patients with demonstrated complete traumatic upper brachial plexus injuries of C5-C6, the pooled international data strongly favors dual nerve transfer over traditional nerve grafting for restoration of improved shoulder and elbow function. These data may be helpful to surgeons considering intraoperative options, particularly in cases in which the native nerve root or trunk may appear less than optimal, or when long nerve grafts are contemplated.Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.