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Patient Safety Climate Among Orthopaedic Surgery Residents
John Kadzielski, MD1; Frank McCormick, MD1; David Zurakowski, PhD1; James H. Herndon, MD, MBA1
1 Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, White 535, Boston, MA 02114. E-mail address for J. Kadzielski: jkadzielski@partners.org
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Disclosure: In support of their research for or preparation of this work, one or more of the authors received, in any one year, outside funding or grants of less than $10,000 from Partners Center for Expertise/Partners Graduate Medical Education. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2011 Jun 01;93(11):e62 1-6. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01478
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Patient safety has attained a higher profile since the Institute of Medicine's report, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, was distributed in 20001. This report suggested that many hospital errors were related to flaws within the health-care delivery system. Many organizations—aviation, nuclear power, the military, and some industries—have realized that safe systems are essential for creating a barrier between human errors and adverse events2. Organizations with systems designed to minimize errors, prevent adverse events, and produce reliable outcomes despite intrinsic risks have been termed highly reliable organizations2,3. Health-care institutions are now being challenged by both internal and external forces to become highly reliable organizations by applying systems-based approaches to address patient safety.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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