Instructional Course Lecture   |    
Practical Research Methods for Orthopaedic Surgeons
Adam S. Dowrick, PhD1; Paul Tornetta III, MD2; William T. Obremskey, MD, MPH3; Douglas R. Dirschl, MD4; Mohit Bhandari, MD1
1 Departments of Surgery and Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, 293 Wellington Street North, Suite 110, Hamilton, ON, L8L 2X2, Canada. E-mail address for A.S. Dowrick: a.dowrick@alfred.org.au
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Medical Center, 850 Harrison Avenue, Dowling 2 North, Boston, MA 02118
3 Division of Orthopaedic Trauma, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 1215 21st Avenue South, MCE South Tower, Suite 4200, Nashville, TN 37232
4 Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 3147 Bioinformatics, CB#7055, Chapel Hill, NC 37599
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Printed with permission of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. This article, as well as other lectures presented at the Academy's Annual Meeting, will be available in February 2012 in Instructional Course Lectures, Volume 61. The complete volume can be ordered online at www.aaos.org, or by calling 800-626-6726 (8 a.m.-5 p.m., Central time).

An Instructional Course Lecture, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. One or more of the authors, or his or her institution, has had a financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with an entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. No author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Feb 15;94(4):368-374. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.944icl
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To interpret the quality of the information presented in an orthopaedic study, it is necessary to have a basic knowledge of study design principles and statistics. Similarly, to conduct a study, surgeons need to understand the basic research concepts to consider during the design phase to ensure the results add as much evidence as possible. This article presents the basics of study design and statistical concepts relevant to an orthopaedic surgical researcher.
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    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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