0
Scientific Articles   |    
The Epidemiology of Ankle Sprains in the United States
Brian R. Waterman, MD1; Brett D. Owens, MD2; Shaunette Davey, DO1; Michael A. Zacchilli, MD1; Philip J. Belmont, Jr., MD1
1 Orthopaedic Surgery Service, William Beaumont Army Medical Center, 5005 North Piedras Street, El Paso, TX 79920-5001. E-mail address for B.R. Waterman: brian.waterman@amedd.army.mil
2 Keller Army Hospital, 900 Washington Road, West Point, NY 10996
View Disclosures and Other Information
Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

A commentary by Anthony D. Watson, MD, is available at www.jbjs.org/commentary and as supplemental material to the online version of this article.
Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, William Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, Texas, and the Keller Army Hospital, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York
Disclaimer: The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Department of Defense or the U.S. government. The authors are employees of the U.S. government.

Copyright © 2010 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2010 Oct 06;92(13):2279-2284. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.01537
A commentary by Anthony D. Watson, MD, is available here
5 Recommendations (Recommend) | 3 Comments | Saved by 3 Users Save Case

Abstract

Background: 

Ankle sprain has been studied in athletic cohorts, but little is known of its epidemiology in the general population. A longitudinal, prospective epidemiological database was used to determine the incidence and demographic risk factors for ankle sprains presenting to emergency departments in the United States. It was our hypothesis that ankle sprain is influenced by sex, race, age, and involvement in athletics.

Methods: 

The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried for all ankle sprain injuries presenting to emergency departments between 2002 and 2006. Incidence rate ratios were then calculated with respect to age, sex, and race.

Results: 

During the study period, an estimated 3,140,132 ankle sprains occurred among an at-risk population of 1,461,379,599 person-years for an incidence rate of 2.15 per 1000 person-years in the United States. The peak incidence of ankle sprain occurred between fifteen and nineteen years of age (7.2 per 1000 person-years). Males, compared with females, did not demonstrate an overall increased incidence rate ratio for ankle sprain (incidence rate ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.09). However, males between fifteen and twenty-four years old had a substantially higher incidence of ankle sprain than their female counterparts (incidence rate ratio, 1.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.41 to 1.66), whereas females over thirty years old had a higher incidence compared with their male counterparts (incidence rate ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.65 to 2.65). Compared with the Hispanic race, the black and white races were associated with substantially higher rates of ankle sprain (incidence rate ratio, 3.55 [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 6.09] and 2.49 [95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 3.97], respectively). Nearly half of all ankle sprains (49.3%) occurred during athletic activity, with basketball (41.1%), football (9.3%), and soccer (7.9%) being associated with the highest percentage of ankle sprains during athletics.

Conclusions: 

An age of ten to nineteen years old is associated with higher rates of ankle sprain. Males between fifteen and twenty-four years old have higher rates of ankle sprain than their female counterparts, whereas females over thirty years old have higher rates than their male counterparts. Half of all ankle sprains occur during athletic activity.

Level of Evidence: 

Prognostic Level II. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Figures in this Article

    Topics

    ankle sprains
    Sign In to Your Personal ProfileSign In To Access Full Content
    Not a Subscriber?
    Get online access for 30 days for $35
    New to JBJS?
    Sign up for a full subscription to both the print and online editions
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities, to comment on public articles, or to sign up for alerts.
    Register for a FREE limited account to get full access to all CME activities
    Have a subscription to the print edition?
    Current subscribers to The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery in either the print or quarterly DVD formats receive free online access to JBJS.org.
    Forgot your password?
    Enter your username and email address. We'll send you a reminder to the email address on record.

     
    Forgot your username or need assistance? Please contact customer service at subs@jbjs.org. If your access is provided
    by your institution, please contact you librarian or administrator for username and password information. Institutional
    administrators, to reset your institution's master username or password, please contact subs@jbjs.org

    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
    CME Activities Associated with This Article
    Submit a Comment
    Please read the other comments before you post yours. Contributors must reveal any conflict of interest.
    Comments are moderated and will appear on the site at the discretion of JBJS editorial staff.

    * = Required Field
    (if multiple authors, separate names by comma)
    Example: John Doe





    Related Content
    The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    JBJS Case Connector
    Topic Collections
    Related Audio and Videos
    PubMed Articles
    Clinical Trials
    Readers of This Also Read...
    JBJS Jobs
    04/16/2014
    Connecticut - Yale University School of Medicine
    04/02/2014
    Illinois - Hinsdale Orthopaedics
    02/05/2014
    Oregon - The Center - Orthopedic and Neurosurgical Care and Research