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Validity and Reliability of Measuring Femoral Anteversion and Neck-Shaft Angle in Patients with Cerebral Palsy
Chin Youb Chung, MD1; Kyoung Min Lee, MD1; Moon Seok Park, MD1; Sang Hyeong Lee, MD1; In Ho Choi, MD2; Tae-Joon Cho, MD2
1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 300 Gumi-Dong, Bundang-Gu, Sungnam, Kyungki 463-707, South Korea. E-mail address for M.S. Park: pmsmed@hanafos.com
2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, 28 Yonkun-Dong, Chongro-Gu, Seoul 110-774, South Korea
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Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity.

Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Kyungki, and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea

Copyright ©2010 American Society for Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2010 May 01;92(5):1195-1205. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.I.00688
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Abstract

Background: 

Increased femoral anteversion and coxa valga are common in patients with cerebral palsy. The purpose of the present study was to determine the validity and reliability of the methods that are commonly used to measure the proximal femoral geometry in patients with cerebral palsy.

Methods: 

Thirty-six consecutive patients (mean age, eleven years; range, five to twenty years) with cerebral palsy were enrolled in the present study. The validity and the interobserver reliability of the physical examinations performed by three examiners were determined by comparing the results of a trochanteric prominence angle test, hip internal rotation measurements, and hip external rotation measurements (all with the patient in the prone position) with the amount of femoral anteversion on two-dimensional computed tomography. Validity and intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by comparing the neck-shaft angle on the anteroposterior internal rotation radiograph of the hips with that on the multiplanar reformatted computed tomographic image.

Results: 

The trochanteric prominence angle test showed excellent concurrent validity (R = 0.862, p < 0.001) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.809). Hip internal rotation also showed good concurrent validity (R = 0.787, p < 0.001) and excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.889), whereas hip external rotation appeared to be unsuitable for predicting femoral anteversion. The neck-shaft angle on the anteroposterior internal rotation radiograph of the hips showed excellent concurrent validity (R = 0.892, p < 0.001) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.912).

Conclusions: 

A physical examination for determining femoral anteversion and the neck-shaft angle as measured on the internal rotation radiograph of the hips appear to be clinically relevant methods for evaluating the proximal femoral geometry and version in patients with cerebral palsy. Computed tomographic examination can probably be replaced by physical examination and an anteroposterior internal rotation radiograph of the hips for patients with stable hips who are able to walk.

Level of Evidence: 

Diagnostic Level I. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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