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Scientific Articles   |    
Comparison of Forearm Rotation Allowed by Different Types of Upper Extremity Immobilization
Jae Kwang Kim, MD, PhD1; Seung Hwan Kook, MD1; You Keun Kim, MD1
1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Ewha Womans Mokdong Hospital, 911-1, Mok-5-dong, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul, 158-710, South Korea. E-mail address for J.K. Kim: kimjk@ewha.ac.kr
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Investigation performed at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Ewha Womans Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, South Korea



Disclosure: None of the authors received payments or services, either directly or indirectly (i.e., via his or her institution), from a third party in support of any aspect of this work. None of the authors, or their institution(s), have had any financial relationship, in the thirty-six months prior to submission of this work, with any entity in the biomedical arena that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. Also, no author has had any other relationships, or has engaged in any other activities, that could be perceived to influence or have the potential to influence what is written in this work. The complete Disclosures of Potential Conflicts of Interest submitted by authors are always provided with the online version of the article.

Copyright © 2012 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2012 Mar 07;94(5):455-460. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.J.01402
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Abstract

Background: 

The purpose of this study was to compare the active forearm pronation and supination allowed by a short arm splint, short arm cast, sugar tong splint, long arm splint, and long arm cast in normal, healthy subjects.

Methods: 

Forty healthy, right-handed volunteers (twenty men and twenty women) with a mean age of thirty-five years (range, twenty-three to sixty-six years) were recruited. Two examiners used a goniometer developed for the study to measure the active forearm supination and pronation in each subject with and without the application of the different types of upper extremity immobilization. Forearm pronation and supination were compared among the immobilization methods and between men and women. The inter-rater reliability of the measurements was evaluated with use of the intraclass correlation coefficient.

Results: 

The long arm cast decreased active forearm rotation to <10% of the value with no immobilization. The short arm cast, sugar tong splint, and long arm splint decreased active forearm rotation to <40% of the baseline measurement. No significant difference in active forearm supination or pronation was observed among the short arm cast, sugar tong splint, and long arm splint in the overall study cohort or in the men. However, forearm supination and pronation in the women differed significantly between the short arm cast and both the sugar tong splint and the long arm splint.

Conclusions: 

The long arm cast provided the greatest restriction of forearm rotation. Overall, no significant difference in active forearm supination or pronation was observed among the short arm cast, sugar tong splint, and long arm splint.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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    References

    Accreditation Statement
    These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the Essential Areas and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons is accredited by the ACCME to provide continuing medical education for physicians.
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