➤ Cigarette smoking decreases bone mineral density and increases the risk of sustaining a fracture or tendon injury, with partial reversibility of these risks with long-term cessation of smoking.<... [more]
The virtual simulator, consisting of a display (right) and a haptic device (left).
Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of control (Figs. 1-A and 1-B) and experimental (Figs. 1-C and 1-D) nerves three weeks after placement of rhBMP-2. Lower-magnification images showed normal fascicular structure with perineurium separating the fascicles and epineurium surrounding the nerve. Blood vessels of various sizes can be seen within the epineurium and within some fascicles. Higher-magnification images demonstrate both transverse and longitudinally oriented nerve fibers. The appearance of control and experimental tissues was similar in the one-week group. One rat in the three-week group (Figs. 1-E and 1-F) showed focal neuronal degeneration with homogenization of the nervous tissues (asterisk). This same rat demonstrated solid myelin sheaths without axons in toluidine blue-stained sections (see Figs. 3-G and 3-H). Scale bar = 200 μm in Figs. 1-A, 1-C, and 1-E. Scale bar = 50 μm in Figs. 1-B, 1-D, and 1-F.
To determine the posterior tibial slope, a line is drawn down the longitudinal axis of the tibia on a true lateral radiograph. Then a line is drawn from the peak anterior and posterior points on the medial tibial plateau. The posterior tibial slope is defined as the angle between the line joining the tibial plateau and the line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
A decrease in the level of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) at two and six weeks postinjury and an increase in the level of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at six weeks postinjury, compared with the levels in the intact tendon, suggested the presence of oxidative stress during the development of restrictive tendon adhesion (Fig. 1-A). The local administration of vitamin C immediately after the operation significantly increased the level of GSH, whereas no significant change was observed in the level of GSSG, when compared with that in the saline solution group (Fig. 1-B). In the boxplot, the top and bottom of the rectangles indicate the 75th percentile and the 25th percentile, respectively; the horizontal lines within the rectangles indicate the median; and the top and bottom of the I bars indicate the 95th percentile and the 5th percentile, respectively.
The mean differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone microarchitecture between the fracture and control groups. FN = femoral neck, UD = ultradistal, Trab = trabecular, cort = cortical, Tb.Th = trabecular thickness, Tb.N = trabecular number, Tb.Sp = trabecular separation, Tb.SpSD = standard deviation of trabecular separation, HR-pQCT = high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and DXA = dual x-ray absorptiometry.
Fig. 1 The U-shaped rotator cuff tear exhibits a long and wide pattern with increased medial-to-lateral length. The blue arrows indicate the width and length of the torn cuff.
The population of each decile in the catchment area.
Fig. 1 Photograph showing the volar surface of the model with the distal radial fracture fragment displaced radially, showing the distal attachment of the tensioning straps.
Risk factors for amputation following open calcaneal fractures, with associated percentages. Overall, 42% of patients with an open calcaneal fracture underwent amputation. All Gustilo and Anderson type-IIIC fractures required amputation Of the forty-four extremities with a Gustilo and Anderson type-IIIB fracture with plantar wounds, twenty-seven (61%) required amputation of the extremity.
Radiographic appearance of an atypical femoral fracture in a sixty-three-year-old woman who had been on bisphosphonate therapy for seven years prior to developing left thigh pain. The left panel is an initial anteroposterior radiograph of the left femur showing focal cortical thickening along the lateral proximal femoral diaphysis that represents an incomplete fracture (arrow). The central panel is an anteroposterior radiograph of the femur taken two days later showing a displaced fracture centered at the prior site of cortical thickening even though the patient had been placed on protected weight-bearing and did not sustain a trauma during the intervening time. The right panel is an anteroposterior radiograph of the right femur of the same patient, made after she had begun experiencing milder right thigh pain, demonstrating subtle cortical thickening along the lateral proximal aspect of the right femur that also represents a developing insufficiency fracture (arrow).
The data collection form
An appendix showing the checklist and global rating scale and the questionnaire distributed after the Sawbones simulator procedure
Tables showing descriptive statistics, mean rotation along the length of the bicipital groove, and groove rotation according to the groove segment
A table showing patient demographics by type of treatment
Tables showing the types of fractures in the original 1184 patients (classified according to the Gustilo and Anderson classification), the mechanism of injury for the original 1184 patients, and the details of the patients who did not have intracompartmental pressure monitoring