While most studies of Duchenne muscular dystrophy scoliosis focus on technical and radiographic indices, functional status is a more important ... [more]
Parent reports of patient function differed between medical malpractice litigation and non-litigation cohorts, matched on age and injury severity, for children with all types of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (Figs. 1-A, 1-B, and 1-C) and children with specifically upper plexus injuries (Raimondi grade 4 or 5) (Figs. 1-D and 1-E). Error bars indicate the interquartile range.
Flowchart diagram for the study. When a patient was consulted for surgery, he or she was evaluated with the manual muscle test, modified Rancho scale, forced vital capacity, end tidal CO2, and radiographic parameters. At the time of the final evaluation, the same evaluations were performed and the Muscular Dystrophy Spine Questionnaire (MDSQ) was added.
Schematic workflow for a microarray GWAS. (1) When identifying study populations, note that a GWAS has greater power to detect significant associations when large populations are included in the analysis. (2) DNA from each sample is analyzed on microarrays that test millions of genome-wide SNPs. SNP genotypes are determined by the fluorescent color of the microarray during signal detection. (3) SNP alleles are counted in the case and control populations. Each sample has two possible alleles for each SNP site (shown in red), one allele inherited from each parent. Sites without SNP mutations are shown in black. (4) Statistical analysis in this GWAS uses case-control chi-square contingency tables. SNP1 is significantly associated with the disease (p < 0.05). (5) Association results are plotted genome-wide, from the first SNP of chromosome 1 to the last SNP of chromosome X; this is called a Manhattan plot. The negative of the logarithm of the p value, –log(p), for each SNP is plotted on the y axis. Peaks in the plot represent highly significant p values near candidate genes. The horizontal dashed line marks the –log(p) value representing Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significance. Chromosomes are represented with alternating colors.
Growth chart comparison of TT-TG (tibial tubercle-trochlear groove) distance (in millimeters) with chronologic age (in years) in the normal group (those without patellar instability) for the 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles.
A flowchart of the thirty hips that underwent late reconstructive surgery, showing the long-term (fifty-year) radiographic outcome in relation to indications for surgery and short-term results (one year after surgery) and presented as number of hips.
Number of cast saw injuries by month, 2010 through 2012. The number of injuries per month is represented by the line. The pre-intervention period depicts the spike in injuries observed during October 2009.
The suture configurations tested in side-by-side tenorrhaphy were a running locked suture (Fig. 1-A), four simple eight sutures on each side of the tenorrhaphy (Fig. 1-B), four vertical mattress sutures (Fig. 1-C), and four pulley sutures (Fig. 1-D).
Graphic representation of patient age versus Cobb angle measurement for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I (green), type III (red), and type IV (blue).
A bar graph showing complex fractures, defined as type-3 supracondylar humeral fractures, supracondylar humeral fractures with intercondylar extension, open fractures, or supracondylar humeral fractures with ipsilateral upper-extremity fractures. Here the type-3 fractures are separated from the rest of the complex fractures. Logistic regression analysis revealed that fracture complexity was more likely to occur in obese patients (OR, 9.19; p < 0.001), overweight patients (OR, 2.05; p = 0.02), and underweight patients (OR, 1.91; p = 0.08) than in normal-weight patients.
The classification system used to identify the location of the resection by the sector in the horizontal plane. A = the anterior sector of the rib arc, B = the lateral sector, and C = the posterior sector.
A photograph of a child in longitudinal traction and radiographs of two patients before operative treatment for subluxation and at the time of long-term follow-up