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Scientific Articles  |  April 02, 2014

Figures  
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    Flowchart showing the identification of articles included in the systematic review.

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    A graphical plot showing the ROC curve for frozen section histology based on the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the five highest-density high-power fields. The optimal threshold value of 72% sensitivity and 0% false positive rate was for more than ten polymorphonuclear leukocytes in five high-power fields (black arrow).

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    Clinical course of 404 scheduled total joint arthroplasties in diabetic patients.

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    Patients included and excluded from the study.

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    Digitized C-arm radiograph of rabbit forearms. The right (R) side is the untreated control, and the left (L) is the treated side. In this animal, the culture from the left limb was negative, whereas that from the right limb grew S. aureus. It can be seen that the implant on the right side is loose, whereas that on the left side appears well integrated.

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    Calculations used in this study to describe test efficacy. The predictive value of a test is strongly influenced by the prevalence of the disorder in the population being investigated.

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    Treatment decision tree for a patient with a periprosthetic hip infection. A very high operative risk is an ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) score of ≥3 points. Severe bone loss was defined on radiographs and/or had introperative Paprosky scores of >2 points for the acetabulum. A very high risk of reinfection was defined as two or more unrelated periprosthetic hip infections in the past ten years and/or a non-modifiable portal of bacterial entry (i.e., severe chronic dermatitis or chronic lymphedema with recurrent erysipelas). If the microorganism isolated preoperatively is a fungus or a difficult-to-treat organism in a patient with multiple antibiotic allergies or intolerances, leaving only one or two antibiotic options, a two-stage exchange arthroplasty is performed. Two-stage exchange arthroplasty is rarely decided perioperatively because of incomplete excision or perioperative complications. Q = question.

    Figure Description
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    Mean SF-12 PCS scores according to diagnosis. The superscripted numbers indicate the reference sources. The striped bar represents tibial nonunion, and the solid white bar represents the mean across the noninstitutionalized United States population. The medical conditions above the dashed line were associated with significantly (p < 0.05) better physical health compared with tibial shaft nonunion.

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    Kaplan-Meier survival curve with 95% confidence intervals for five years from first admission for patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. The analysis is separated into patients undergoing treatment for periprosthetic joint infection or aseptic failure. Vertical marks indicate censoring. At established time points (thirty days, ninety days, one year, two years, and five years), the mortality incidence in all patients available for analysis at that time point is displayed. A = patients undergoing aseptic revision, and S = patients undergoing septic revision.

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    Schematic drawing showing salient features of biofilm formation in a staphylococcal biofilm model based on studies by Boles and Horswill5, Otto6, and Resch et al.7. The blue boxes show the main processes in biofilm formation, the yellow boxes show the chemical environment, and the red boxes show the phenotype. In planktonic cells, expression of the accessory gene regulator (agr) system results in the production of secreted virulence factors, reduced attachment, and the suppression of biofilm accumulation by increasing dispersal. EPS = extracellular polymeric substances.

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