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Scientific Articles  |  April 16, 2014

Scientific Articles  |  April 16, 2014
Scientific Articles  |  April 16, 2014
Figures  
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    Trends in use of rhBMP in cervical fusion surgery.

    Figure Description
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    Plot of the risk of scoliosis progressing to a surgical range based on hours per day that the brace was worn.

    Figure Description
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    The measurement of interspinous motion at each surgical level (C5-C6 and C6-C7) and the superjacent level (C4-C5) on dynamic radiographs. Interspinous motion at C5-C6 is 0.4 mm (B and b), interspinous motion at C6-C7 is 2.9 mm (C and c), and superjacent interspinous motion at C4-C5 is 10.1 mm (A and a). The radiographs were magnified 150% as compared with the images on the upper left, and the magnification rate can blind the measurer regarding anterior operative levels on a computer monitor with a diagonal length of 48.3 cm showing flexion and extension radiographs simultaneously.

    Figure Description
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    The rate of major complications by month (circles) with 95% confidence intervals (I bars). No significant differences were observed in complication rates across all twelve months.

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    Age-group-specific rates of treatment with anti-osteoporosis pharmacotherapy during the twelve months following fracture among women and men, by fracture site.

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    Flowchart diagram for the study. When a patient was consulted for surgery, he or she was evaluated with the manual muscle test, modified Rancho scale, forced vital capacity, end tidal CO2, and radiographic parameters. At the time of the final evaluation, the same evaluations were performed and the Muscular Dystrophy Spine Questionnaire (MDSQ) was added.

    Figure Description
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    Schematic workflow for a microarray GWAS. (1) When identifying study populations, note that a GWAS has greater power to detect significant associations when large populations are included in the analysis. (2) DNA from each sample is analyzed on microarrays that test millions of genome-wide SNPs. SNP genotypes are determined by the fluorescent color of the microarray during signal detection. (3) SNP alleles are counted in the case and control populations. Each sample has two possible alleles for each SNP site (shown in red), one allele inherited from each parent. Sites without SNP mutations are shown in black. (4) Statistical analysis in this GWAS uses case-control chi-square contingency tables. SNP1 is significantly associated with the disease (p < 0.05). (5) Association results are plotted genome-wide, from the first SNP of chromosome 1 to the last SNP of chromosome X; this is called a Manhattan plot. The negative of the logarithm of the p value, –log(p), for each SNP is plotted on the y axis. Peaks in the plot represent highly significant p values near candidate genes. The horizontal dashed line marks the –log(p) value representing Bonferroni-corrected genome-wide significance. Chromosomes are represented with alternating colors.

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    Graphic representation of patient age versus Cobb angle measurement for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type I (green), type III (red), and type IV (blue).

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    The classification system used to identify the location of the resection by the sector in the horizontal plane. A = the anterior sector of the rib arc, B = the lateral sector, and C = the posterior sector.

    Figure Description
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    Forest plot of the risk ratio for developing pseudarthrosis in patients undergoing a reduction procedure compared with patients undergoing arthrodesis in situ. M-H = Mantel-Haenszel, CI = confidence interval, and df = degrees of freedom.

    Figure Description
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