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Scientific Articles  |  April 02, 2014

The Orthopaedic Forum  |  April 02, 2014
Scientific Articles  |  April 02, 2014
Figures  
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    Representative images from one patient. In the post-gadolinium dGEMRIC color maps at one year (Fig. 1-A) and two years (Fig. 1-D) postoperatively, higher T1 values (blue) are associated with increased relative glycosaminoglycan content and lower T1 values (red) indicate decreased glycosaminoglycan content. The corresponding T2 color maps at one year (Fig. 1-B) and two years (Fig. 1-E) show stratification of T2 values between the deep (red) and the superficial (blue) zone in transplanted osteochondral allograft cartilage. The cartilage-specific T2*-weighted images at one year (Fig. 1-C) and two years (Fig. 1-F) are displayed for reference.

    Figure Description
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    CONSORT flow diagram.

    Figure Description
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    RCTs published in the United States according to year, showing the proportion of those reporting race and/or ethnicity.

    Figure Description
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    Figs. 1-A, 1-B, and 1-C The surgical technique. Fig. 1-A The sternal tendon of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle is dissected from within the muscle (the cranial end is often indistinct). Fig. 1-B An oblique capsulotomy is performed with elevation of two capsular flaps. (*The dashed line represents the line of capsular incision.) A 3.5-mm tunnel is drilled in the medial end of the clavicle. The tendon is tubularized with a whip stitch. Fig 1-C The tendon is passed through an aperture in the inferomedial capsular flap, then through the tunnel (1), and folded back to be sutured to itself on the manubrium sterni (2). The capsule is closed with a superior-to-inferior slide. The hiatus in the sternocleidomastoid muscle is sutured together (3). SCM(C) = clavicular head of sternocleidomastoid muscle, SCM(S) = sternal head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, CCL = costoclavicular ligament, C = sternoclavicular joint capsule, CF(S) = superior capsular flap of the anterior sternoclavicular joint capsule, CF(I) = inferior capsular flap of the anterior sternoclavicular joint capsule, S = manubrium sterni, and R = first rib.

    Figure Description
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    Mean preoperative and postoperative outcome scores. The whiskers indicate the 95% confidence interval, and the asterisks indicate a significant change from the preoperative score (p < 0.05). Some of the statistically significant improvements were smaller than the corresponding MCID.

    Figure Description
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    Illustration of the six different types of acromioclavicular joint injuries in the Rockwood classification system. (Reprinted, with permission, from: Beim GM. Acromioclavicular joint injuries. J Athl Train. 2000:35[3]:261-7).

    Figure Description
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    Mean SF-12 PCS scores according to diagnosis. The superscripted numbers indicate the reference sources. The striped bar represents tibial nonunion, and the solid white bar represents the mean across the noninstitutionalized United States population. The medical conditions above the dashed line were associated with significantly (p < 0.05) better physical health compared with tibial shaft nonunion.

    Figure Description
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    Brachial plexus anatomy. (Reproduced, with permission, from: Buckenmaier C III, Bleckner L. The Military Advanced Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia Handbook. Washington, DC: The Office of The Surgeon General at TMM Publications, The Borden Institute, Walter Reed Medical Center; 2008.)

    Figure Description
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    Patient disposition. aTwo patients in the SOC group were mistakenly classified as “randomized but not treated,” but actually were treated by standard of care. These patients were included in the safety population. SOC = standard of care, BMP = bone morphogenetic protein, and CPM = calcium phosphate matrix.

    Figure Description
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    Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow diagram. RKA = ropivacaine, ketorolac, adrenaline.

    Figure Description
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