Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip
A prospective randomized trial evaluating immediate treatment compared with active sonographic surveillance for infants with dysplastic, nondislocatable hips demonstrated that surveillance halved the need for treatment without having an effect on the radiographic appearance of the hip at the age of one year1. In a study in which twenty-nine patients with bilateral dislocation of the hip were compared with thirty-eight patients with unilateral dislocation, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to the failure of Pavlik treatment2. Two studies analyzed factors associated with unsuccessful Pavlik harness treatment of dislocated hips3,4. In one series of 221 hips, successful reduction was obtained in 81.9% of the hips, with development of osteonecrosis in 8.8%3. Adduction contracture and decreased distance from the proximal medial femoral metaphysis (indicated by the “a” line) were identified as risk factors that were predictive of failure. Another study of eighty-five patients demonstrated a rate of Pavlik harness failure of 37%4. Sonographic findings associated with unsuccessful Pavlik harness treatment included an increased beta angle, superior femoral head migration relative to the labrum, and total femoral head displacement less than −30°4. In a retrospective review of late-presenting patients (age range, six to twenty-four months) who were managed with Pavlik harness reduction, 60% of Graf type-3 hips were reduced with no associated osteonecrosis, whereas no Graf type-4 hips were reduced5.
A single-institution review of operative reduction of dislocated hips in late-presenting children demonstrated that femoral shortening osteotomy was more common in children with an age of more than thirty-six months or with femoral displacement of >30% of the pelvic height, with an overall prevalence of 35%6. In the study by Spence et al., open reduction combined with varus derotational proximal …
Enter your JBJS login information below.
Please note that your username is the email address you provided when you registered.